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What is Your Attachment Style?

Dr. Linda Wagener
Senior Consulting Psychologist, Headington Institute

 

I have been writing about the difficulty and the importance of making intimate relationships work in the humanitarian context. One of the influences on relationships is your attachment style. This is your usual pattern of relating to others. Your attachment style is formed very early in life. It is a result of your biology and your early relationships. While you have little choice over the attachment style that you have developed, you can work on skills to improve your relationships regardless of your attachment style. Understanding, accepting, and making the most of your attachment style is possible for everyone by developing our relationship competencies.

There are two fundamental ways in which people differ from one another in relationships. First is the dimension of insecurity/security. People with attachment anxiety worry about whether their partners really love them and fear rejection. People who are secure are much less worried about such matters. They feel confident about their partner’s love for them. Second, is the dimension of avoidance/connection.People who avoid attachment are less comfortable depending on others and opening up to others. People who comfortable with connection have an easier time being vulnerable and emotionally connected to others.

Here are a couple of  fictional examples of how these relational styles might play out in relationships:
Secure Attachment

Ada is a relief worker who describes herself in the following way: “It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don’t worry about being alone or having others not accept me.”

Ada has a secure attachment style and so does her husband, Raul. This style of attachment usually results from a history of warm and responsive interactions in early childhood and with later relationship partners. Ada has positive views of herself and Raul. They are both very satisfied with their marriage.

Ada is comfortable both with closeness and with independence. She loves the time she spends on deployment, but also loves to come back home. She feels close to her husband regardless of where she is and looks forward to her calls with him at the end of the day. They can stay committed and affectionately involved even with the frequent, lengthy, separations; distance; and patchy communication that come with humanitarian work. Because Ada is comfortable and confident around people, she has a good support network. Raul is not jealous, but relaxed about Ada’s friendships with her work colleagues and friends.

Ada and Raul are both characterized by security and connection. This style makes it easier to engage in humanitarian work. Secure partners are able to give and receive affection, stay positive, and handle separations well. When people feel confident about themselves and their partners they are free to use their energy to focus on their complex jobs. When they are home, they are able to enjoy their relationship fully.

Of course, most of us are not fortunate enough to be fully secure and comfortable with connection. Because of our “wiring” and early experience we may fall somewhere closer to the insecure or avoidant end of the continuum. Security and connection are something we have to work toward by further developing our communication and intimacy skills. The other three attachment styles are the result of some degree of insecurity or avoidance or a combination of both.

Insecure Attachment

Bo is engaged to a woman who has had a successful career as an international development worker. At first he was proud of her achievements. But he is increasingly uncomfortable with her work, especially with her frequent travel. This is how Bo describes himself. “I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don’t value me as much as I value them.”

Bo has an insecure attachment style. Bo seeks and is comfortable with high levels of intimacy, approval, and responsiveness from his partner. He values their closeness so much that he can become too dependent on her at times. Bo has less positive views about himself. He can fall into doubt about his worth as a partner and may sometimes blame himself for his partner’s lack of responsiveness. He often expresses his worry and jealousy to his fiancée. He finds her friendships with her colleagues threatening.

Bo is skilled and comfortable with intimacy but he has difficulty with separation. His anxiety is increased even with the thought of upcoming separation. He often ‘spoils’ the last few days his fiancée has at home before a trip. When she returns he is often upset, angry, or clinging for some period of time before they can get back into their normal close routine. An anxious attachment style may pose difficulty for humanitarian partners like Bo who must endure frequent separations.

Bo’s strength is in his ability to connect. But he does not readily feel secure. His relationship with his fiancée can benefit from both of them working on the dimension of security. Increasing positive communication, expressing affection, and scheduling regular times for pleasant activities together can be helpful. Bo’s awareness that his insecurity comes from his past history, rather than his current partner may help him regulate his negative emotions. They can consider connectedness a strength that Bo brings to their relationship.

Dismissive Attachment

Sue is an aid worker who has been stationed in Cypress for five years. She describes herself in this way: “I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.” Sue desires a high level of independence. In fact, she avoids attachment altogether. She doesn’t feel she needs close relationships. They are unimportant to her. In the past, Sue has had partners but has not been particularly close to them. Though her self-esteem is positive, she did not view her partners very positively. Sue hides her feelings and often distances herself from others including her work colleagues. She enjoys her alone time. She infrequently contacts her family and friends from home.

Humanitarian work can be very comfortable for people like Sue with a dismissive attachment style. If they are in a relationship, they usually look forward to the times of separation and independence. Unless their partner is similar in style, however, their “out of sight, out of mind” attitude may make it difficult for the relationship to survive. Humanitarians with this style may also find it difficult to benefit from social support in times of stress and crisis. They may prefer to “go it alone.” Sue’s strength is her sense of security but she needs to work on connectedness. Though she may be comfortable with her style, her support network and work relationships may benefit from working on her skills of connection. Her family and friends may feel like she doesn’t care about them because of her style. In particular, she may benefit from increasing her skills at knowing and being known. Practicing self-disclosure and becoming more curious about others is a good way to start. Working to address problems directly rather than ignore or avoid them may also improve her relationships.

Fearful Attachment

David is a disaster relief specialist who has a home base in Australia but often is deployed overseas. He agrees with the following self-description: “I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.” David has mixed feelings about close relationships. On the one hand, he wants to have a wife and children. On the other hand, he is uncomfortable with commitment and emotional closeness. David has often come close to getting engaged but at the last minute gets cold feet, worrying that he is not ready or the woman is not the right one for him. David’s girlfriend complains that he is not affectionate enough and often she feels neglected. David is unhappy by the absence of an intimate partner, yet afraid to commit to a relationship. He often finds it a relief to go on deployment. While he is away he tends to get caught up in his work and doesn’t communicate as much as he needs to keep his relationships whole and healthy. When he returns his girlfriend is often frustrated by his distance and lack of emotional connection.

David needs to work on increasing both security and connection. He could benefit from working on his positive communication and affection, especially self-disclosure. Being intentional about increasing the time he spends working on his relationships will be crucial. David also needs to explore the roots of his difficulty trusting others to care for him.

Do you recognize yourself or your partner in any of these scenarios? 

If so, perhaps it can help you to understand your relationship history. While it is difficult to change your attachment style or the style of your partner, it is very important to understand how your styles affect each other. You can compensate for attachment problems by increasing your relationship competencies such as communication, conflict resolution and emotional expressiveness.

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