Resources and references
This module provides an introduction to the topic of stress and stress-management for national staff. It is intended to provide you with some basic information and guide you towards additional resources on this topic. Helpful websites and books are listed below.
If you would like more information, wish to speak to a mental health professional, or desire a professional referral, please contact the Headington Institute at firstname.lastname@example.org or phone +1 (626) 229 9336.
References are provided in the following sections:
More information about support for national staff is provided in…
Ager, A., Flapper, E., Van Pietersom, T. & Simon, W. (2002). Supporting and equipping national and international humanitarian non-governmental organizations and their workers. In Y. Danieli (Ed.), Sharing the front line and the back hills: Peacekeepers, humanitarian aid workers and the media in the midst of crisis (pp.194-200). Amityville, NY: Baywood.
Ahmad, M.M. (2002). Who cares? The personal and professional problems of NGO fieldworkers in Bangladesh. Development in Practice, 12 (2), 177-191.
Allan, A. & Melville, F. (2004) Mitigating stress of national staff: suggestions for proactive management. Presented at conference Cross-cultural perspectives on psychosocial issues of humanitarian staff care, Melbourne, 16-17 November 2004.
Ehrenreich, J.H. (2005). The humanitarian companion. Rugby, UK: ITDG.
Fawcett, J. (2002). Care and support of local staff in Christian humanitarian ministry. In K. O’Donnell (Ed.), Doing member care well: Perspectives and practices from around the world (pp.277-288). Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.
Fawcett, J. (2003) (Ed.). Stress and trauma handbook. Monrovia, CA: World Vision International.
FRONTERA (2007). Motivating staff and volunteers working in NGOs in the south.
Lopes Cardozo, B., Holtz, T.H. et al. (2005). The mental health of expatriate and Kosovar Albanian humanitarian aid workers. Disasters, 29, (2), 152-170.
Lopes Cardozo, B. & Salama, P. (2002). Mental health of humanitarian aid workers in complex emergencies. In Y. Danieli (Ed.), Sharing the front line and the back hills: Peacekeepers, humanitarian aid workers and the media in the midst of crisis (pp.242-255). Amityville, NY: Baywood.
Lovell-Hawker, D. (2008). Debriefing aid workers and missionaries: A comprehensive manual. London: People In Aid. Order from http://www.peopleinaid.org/resources/publications.aspx
Lovell-Hawker, D. (2008). Supporting staff responding to disasters: Recruitment, briefing and on-going care. London: People In Aid. Order from http://www.peopleinaid.org/resources/publications.aspx
Shah, S.A., Garland, E. & Katz, C. (2007). Secondary traumatic stress: prevalence in humanitarian aid workers in India. Traumatology, 13 (1), 59-70.
Books to help you understand people from different cultures include…
Lanier, S.A. (2000). Foreign to familiar: A guide to understanding hot- and cold-climate cultures. Hagerstown, MD: McDougal Publishing.
Maranz, D. (2001). African friends and money matters: Observations from Africa. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
Massey, B. (2006). Where in the world do I belong? Jetlag Press.
For sleep problems:
Sharp, T. J. (2001). The good sleep guide. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
For traumatic stress:
Herbert, C. & Wetmore, A. (1999). Overcoming traumatic stress: A self-help guide using cognitive behavioural techniques. London: Robinson.
Kennerley, H. (1999).Overcoming anxiety: A self-help guide using cognitive behavioural techniques. London: Robinson.
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling good: the new mood therapy. New York: Avon Books. [General]
Williams, C., Richards, P. & Whitton, I. (2002). I’m not supposed to feel like this. London: Hodder & Stoughton. [Christian perspective]
For general emotional wellbeing (including time management, problem-solving, building self-confidence, improving relationships, averting alcohol problems):
Butler, G. and Hope, T. (1995). Manage your Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burns, D. (1999). The Feeling Good Handbook. New York: Plume.
Padesky, C. & Greenberger, D. (1995). Mind over Mood: Cognitive treatment therapy manual for clients. New York: Guilford Press.
Useful websites on stress and trauma
See the other materials and modules on this website, including the online training modules on ‘understanding and coping with traumatic stress’ and ‘trauma and critical incident care for humanitarian workers’.
Mental Health Workers without Borders: This site contains a useful manual by J.H. Ehrenreich (2001) entitled ‘Coping with disaster’, which is available in Spanish or English. This site also contains a bibliography of resources on managing stress in humanitarian, health care, and human rights workers.
An excellent website with information about stress, depression and related problems. This includes assessments; self-help materials; relevant articles, and interviews with leaders from different faith communities about issues related to mental health. Includes information in Polish and Slovac (with Urdu translations also planned). Audio tracks and videos can be downloaded for those who prefer to listen to the information than to read it.
‘Multicultural mental health’ website. Includes fact sheets on depression, anxiety and other difficulties, in 20 languages. Many of the sheets are available in audio as well as print format. Has links to other multicultural resources.
This is the website for the (American) National Center for PTSD. It contains a wealth of useful information. Papers and books can be downloaded free.
Trauma Central Website, containing numerous excellent papers on many issues related to trauma, including information about children.
A clinic specializing in physical and psychological care for aid workers. Website includes useful guidelines, resources and links.
The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. A journal containing many informative articles, which can be downloaded free.
UK trauma group, providing fact-sheets.
Free publications, including ‘Managing stress in the field’ (in English, Spanish or French); ‘Best practices for psychosocial support; and ‘Community-based psychosocial support’.
Community Stress Prevention Center (Israel). Helpful material under ‘articles’ and ‘models and checklists’, for use with children and adults.
Trauma information, including principles for working with traumatized children. Handouts available in English and Spanish.
Links to other trauma sites.
French language resources for helping families
Lots of information about mental health and illness, including diagnosis and medication.
Audio downloads (also available in print) on many issues related to cross-cultural teams, emotional health (including stress, depression and burnout), communications, leadership, and family matters.
References on cross-cultural issues related to stress and trauma
Kleber, R.J., Figley, C. & Gersons, B.P.R. (1995). Beyond trauma: Cultural and societal dynamics. New York: Plenum Press.
Marsella, A.J., Friedman, M.J., Gerrity, E.T. & Scurfield, R.M. (1996). Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research and clinical applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Summerfield, D. (1999). A critique of seven assumptions behind psychological trauma programmes in war-affected areas. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 1449-1462.
Endnotes referenced in the text of this module
1Fawcett, J. & Tanner, V. (2001). The security of national staff: Towards good practices. A report for interaction.
2Lopes Cardozo, B. & Salama, P. (2002). Mental health of humanitarian aid workers in complex emergencies. In Y. Danieli (Ed.), Sharing the front line and the back hills: Peacekeepers, humanitarian aid workers and the media in the midst of crisis (pp.242-255). Amityville, NY: Baywood.
3Brown, J.S.L., Cochrane, R., Mack, CF., Leung, N. & Hancox, T. (1998). Comparison of effectiveness of large scale stress workshops with small stress/anxiety management training groups. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26, 219-235.
4Fawcett, J. (2002). Care and support of local staff in Christian humanitarian ministry. In K. O’Donnell (Ed.), Doing member care well: Perspectives and practices from around the world (pp.277-288). Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.
5Lovell-Hawker, D. (2008). Supporting staff responding to disasters: Recruitment, briefing and on-going care. London: People In Aid. (Order from http://www.peopleinaid.org/resources/publications.aspx).
6If you would like to read a self-help book on how to become more assertive, we recommend Alberti, R. & Emmons, M. (2001). Your perfect right: Assertiveness and equality in your life and relationships. Atascadero, CA: Impact.
7For a list of agencies which are members of People In Aid, showing which ones are committed to implementing the Code, see http://www.peopleinaid.org/membership/default.aspx.
8Carr, K. F. (2006). The Mobile Member Care Team as a means of responding to crises: West Africa. In L. Barbanel & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Psychological Interventions in Times of Crisis. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
9Lovell, D. M. (1997). Psychological adjustment among returned overseas aid workers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wales, Bangor.